#13,905 One of the remarkable, and most worrying, things about influenza is its ability to continually re-in…
Source: Avian Flu Diary: Egyptian MOA: Reassorted H5N2 Detected On Duck Farm
One of the remarkable, and most worrying, things about influenza is its ability to continually re-invent itself, either via a slow process of antigenic drift, or rapidly through antigenic shift (reassortment).
- Antigenic drift causes small, incremental changes in the virus over time. Drift is the standard evolutionary process of influenza viruses, and often come about due to replication errors that are common with single-strand RNA viruses (see NIAID Video: Antigenic Drift).
- Shift occurs when one virus swap out chunks of their genetic code with gene segments from another virus. This is known as reassortment. While far less common than drift, shift can produce abrupt, dramatic, and sometimes pandemic inducing changes to the virus (see NIAID Video: How Influenza Pandemics Occur).
While reassortment can occur with just about any influenza A virus, H5Nx subtypes appear unusually agile in this department, and genetic contributions from LPAI H9N2 can be found inside many avian viruses (see PNAS: Reassortment Potential Of Avian H9N2).
#13,894 Exactly 7 years ago today ( Feb 27, 2012 ) we looked at an announcement from scientists from the U.S. CDC and the Universid…
Source: Avian Flu Diary: Nature: Bat Influenza Receptors In Other Mammals (Including Humans)
#13,879 Twice each year influenza experts gather to make recommendations for the next flu vaccine; once in September…
Source: Avian Flu Diary: WHO: (Partial) Recommended Composition Of 2019-2020 Northern Hemisphere Flu Vaccine
A US mega-farm, a Christian backer and Africa’s oldest industrial chicken producer are bringing the world’s super birds to revolutionise the region’s food market and feed its poor
Source: ‘It’s God’s plan’: the man who dreams of bringing intensive chicken farming to Africa | Environment | The Guardian
The chlorine washing of food, the controversial “cleaning” technique used by many US poultry producers who want access to the British market post-Brexit, does not remove contaminants, a new study has found. The investigation, by a team of microbiologists from Southampton University and published in the US journal mBio, found that bacilli such as listeria and salmonella remain completely active after chlorine washing. The process merely makes it impossible to culture them in the lab, giving the false impression that the chlorine washing has been effective. Apart from a few voluntary codes, the American poultry industry is unregulated compared with that in the EU, allowing for flocks to be kept in far greater densities and leading to a much higher incidence of infection. While chicken farmers in the EU manage contamination through higher welfare standards, smaller flock densities and inoculation, chlorine washing is routinely used in the US right at the end of the process, after slaughter, to clean carcasses. This latest study indicates it simply doesn’t work.
Source: Chicken safety fear as chlorine washing fails bacteria tests | World news | The Guardian
New viruses had all the building blocks of the human virus, and lab exeriments found that some are equipped with the same capacity to enter human cells.
Source: Bat cave study finds new clues about SARS virus origin
The new cases push the number of H3N2v cases for 2017 to 13, the CDC says.
Source: CDC reports 11 H3N2v flu cases linked to Ohio fair | CIDRAP
it was 60 years ago this summer when the first U.S. pandemic H2N2 cases were reported, with the initial wave eventually peaking in October. Dubbed the `Asian Flu’, H2N2 was the first subtype change in seasonal flu in nearly 4 decades, and while milder than the 1918 H1N1 pandemic, it still claimed 70,000 lives in the United States (at a time when the U.S. population was 45% lower than today).
Source: Avian Flu Diary: H2N2: Everything Old Is Flu Again
A 44-year-old man who sold poultry at a farmers market in south-western Sichuan province’s Zigong city was diagnosed with H7N9, China News Service reported. Local authorities announced a one-month halt to poultry markets in the city’s Ziliujing district from midnight on Monday.Separately, a 74-year old man who had visited poultry markets in Shandong province’s Binzhou city was also diagnosed with H7N9, China Central Television reported. Binzhou authorities will temporarily halt poultry markets in three of its districts.
Source: Two Chinese cities close poultry markets after H7N9 bird flu infection, East Asia News & Top Stories – The Straits Times