Frontiers | Inhalational monkeypox virus infection in cynomolgus macaques | Cellular and Infection Microbiology

…When developing an animal model, it is important that the experimental route of infection be the same or similar to the anticipated route of infection in human disease. Transmission of smallpox occurs from aerosols from close contact with an infected individual. These infectious droplets can implant onto the nasal, oral, or pharyngeal mucous membranes or in the alveolar space of the lung and cause disease (Fenner et al., 1988)…

…The intratracheal method of exposing cynomolgus macaques to MPXV was recently described (Stittelaar et al., 2006Goff et al., 2011). This approach attached a microsprayer to a bronchoscope for intratracheal infection. Kramski infected marmosets with cowpox virus that had been isolated from a lethal orthopox virus outbreak in New World monkeys, termed calpox. Calpox was lethal not only via the intravenous route but also by the intranasal route, and the marmosets reproducibly develop symptoms resembling smallpox in humans (Kramski et al., 2010). Small particle aerosols containing MPXV have been used to infect the lower respiratory tracts of cynomolgus macaques (Zaucha et al., 2001Nalca et al., 2010) via an inhalational route. These studies were able to replicate the severe symptoms observed in intravenous infections, but required specialized equipment to generate aerosols containing MPXV…

…Multiple objectives were fulfilled from these tests. An aerosol exposure system was characterized using aerosolized MPXV, and it was shown that gelatin filters and impingers of type model 7541 generated equivalent enumeration results when sampling the MPXV aerosol. Following characterization of the aerosol exposure system, an NHP inhalation study determined a lethal exposure dose of MPXV, and an inhalation cynomolgus macaque model of MPXV infection was developed. Actual NHP exposures were performed with high precision relative to target dose, and the lesions and lethality were similar to the previously published data for the cynomolgus monkey (Zaucha et al., 2001Nalca et al., 2010)…

 

Source: Frontiers | Inhalational monkeypox virus infection in cynomolgus macaques | Cellular and Infection Microbiology