A more effective and less gruesome smallpox vaccine was invented in 1796 and since then, American soldiers received the vaccine from the War of 1812 to World War II. Starting in World War I, the Army added vaccines against typhoid. During World War II, vaccines for influenza, tetanus, cholera, diphtheria, plague and yellow fever were also required. By 2006, soldiers in the armed forces received 13 different vaccines, with additional doses depending on location and regional conditions.
For example, for a child to enter kindergarten, the Florida Department of Health requires four doses of Diphtheria-tetanus-acellular pertussis (DTaP), four doses of polio (IPV), two doses of measles-mumps-rubella (MMR), two doses of chickenpox, Hepatitis B, and pneumococcal conjugate (PCV13), and haemophilus influenzae type b (Hib). When attending college, I had to show proof of vaccination for the same vaccines. Similarly, health-care and child-care workers are often required to show proof of vaccination for Hepatitis B, influenza, measles, mumps, rubella, pertussis, pneumococcal disease and varicella.
Source: The Long History of Mandated Vaccines in the United States
Weighing the risks, on February 5th of 1777, Washington finally committed to the unpopular policy of mass inoculation by writing to inform Congress of his plan. Throughout February, Washington, with no precedent for the operation he was about to undertake, covertly communicated to his commanding officers orders to oversee mass inoculations of their troops in the model of Morristown and Philadelphia (Dr. Shippen’s Hospital). At least eleven hospitals had been constructed by the year’s end. Variola raged throughout the war, devastating the Native American population and slaves who had chosen to fight for the British in exchange for freedom. Yet the isolated infections that sprung up among Continental regulars during the southern campaign failed to incapacitate a single regiment. With few surgeons, fewer medical supplies, and no experience, Washington conducted the first mass inoculation of an army at the height of a war that immeasurably transformed the international system. Defeating the British was impressive, but simultaneously taking on Variola was a risky stroke of genius.
Source: George Washington and the First Mass Military Inoculation (John W. Kluge Center, Library of Congress)
Jair Bolsonaro is backing a legal move to open up large tracts of indigenous territory to commercial exploitation – denounced as an ‘extermination effort’
Source: Indigenous warrior women take fight to save ancestral lands to Brazilian capital | Brazil | The Guardian
University president cites need to decarbonize economy as student campaigners say: ‘Activism works, plain and simple’
Source: Harvard University will divest its $42bn endowment from all fossil fuels | Fossil fuel divestment | The Guardian
Some pharmacies have carried rapid tests since the FDA approved them for home use, but availability has been limited. Biden said major retailers should have the tests for sale next week, and they’ll be offered at cost. Amazon, Walmart and Kroger — the grocery chain that owns Ralphs and Food 4 Less — are the three outlets that the administration said would carry the tests.
For at-home testing, it’s important that you purchase a test that’s been approved by the FDA for the most accurate results. Each type of test, molecular or antigen, has its own approved list.
If you think you have COVID-19, however, your doctor will be able to order a test to be performed for you. If you want to be tested just to be safe, you can visit a free community-based testing site.
Source: Biden is expanding COVID test production. Here’s what to expect – Los Angeles Times
The military and the Department of Veterans Affairs report higher inoculation rates, as do some companies and states, but they have a long way to go.