The Long History of Mandated Vaccines in the United States

A more effective and less gruesome smallpox vaccine was invented in 1796 and since then, American soldiers received the vaccine from the War of 1812 to World War II. Starting in World War I, the Army added vaccines against typhoid. During World War II, vaccines for influenza, tetanus, cholera, diphtheria, plague and yellow fever were also required. By 2006, soldiers in the armed forces received 13 different vaccines, with additional doses depending on location and regional conditions.

For example, for a child to enter kindergarten, the Florida Department of Health requires four doses of Diphtheria-tetanus-acellular pertussis (DTaP), four doses of polio (IPV), two doses of measles-mumps-rubella (MMR), two doses of chickenpox, Hepatitis B, and pneumococcal conjugate (PCV13), and haemophilus influenzae type b (Hib). When attending college, I had to show proof of vaccination for the same vaccines. Similarly, health-care and child-care workers are often required to show proof of vaccination for Hepatitis B, influenza, measles, mumps, rubella, pertussis, pneumococcal disease and varicella.

 

Source: The Long History of Mandated Vaccines in the United States

George Washington and the First Mass Military Inoculation (John W. Kluge Center, Library of Congress)

Weighing the risks, on February 5th of 1777, Washington finally committed to the unpopular policy of mass inoculation by writing to inform Congress of his plan. Throughout February, Washington, with no precedent for the operation he was about to undertake, covertly communicated to his commanding officers orders to oversee mass inoculations of their troops in the model of Morristown and Philadelphia (Dr. Shippen’s Hospital). At least eleven hospitals had been constructed by the year’s end. Variola raged throughout the war, devastating the Native American population and slaves who had chosen to fight for the British in exchange for freedom. Yet the isolated infections that sprung up among Continental regulars during the southern campaign failed to incapacitate a single regiment. With few surgeons, fewer medical supplies, and no experience, Washington conducted the first mass inoculation of an army at the height of a war that immeasurably transformed the international system. Defeating the British was impressive, but simultaneously taking on Variola was a risky stroke of genius.

Source: George Washington and the First Mass Military Inoculation (John W. Kluge Center, Library of Congress)

Bolsonaro Temer e pede arrego!

“It’s not long before this year to end and it’s more than a year before the new elections. Sincerely, let the new year come soon so that we can decide at the electronic polls, our future and new president! “

Depois das fortes falas, no calor da emoção, Bolsonaro convida Temer para dialogar sobre crise institucional. Apenas a síntese de uma semana repleta de tumultos dispensáveis.

Bolsonaro começou a idealizar o dia 07/09/21, com dois meses de antecedência. Um ato, que não se sabe ao certo quem o patrocinou, mas que deixa transparecer não ter sido uma movimentação espontânea. Está claro que a ação foi programada, para ser da forma que foi exercida. Situação que não assustou em nada, muitos especialistas políticos, que creditam que a mobilização teve participação dos apoiadores que ainda confiam em Bolsonaro.

O presidente, no dia 07/09/21, se apresentou um político orgulhoso, com várias frases de efeitos: “Só saio preso, morto ou com vitória”, “Quero dizer aos canalhas que eu nunca serei preso”. Com isso, Bolsonaro critica o presidente do TSE, o ministro Luís Roberto Barroso, sem citá-lo nominalmente.

Barroso reage nesse vídeo:

“Não é uma…

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Indigenous warrior women take fight to save ancestral lands to Brazilian capital | Brazil | The Guardian

An indigenous woman from the Pataxo tribe is seen during a demonstration for the demarcation of indigenous land in Brasília on Thursday. Jair Bolsonaro is backing a legal move to open up large tracts of indigenous territory to commercial exploitation – denounced as an ‘extermination effort’

Source: Indigenous warrior women take fight to save ancestral lands to Brazilian capital | Brazil | The Guardian

Biden is expanding COVID test production. Here’s what to expect – Los Angeles Times

Some pharmacies have carried rapid tests since the FDA approved them for home use, but availability has been limited. Biden said major retailers should have the tests for sale next week, and they’ll be offered at cost. Amazon, Walmart and Kroger — the grocery chain that owns Ralphs and Food 4 Less — are the three outlets that the administration said would carry the tests.

For at-home testing, it’s important that you purchase a test that’s been approved by the FDA for the most accurate results. Each type of test, molecular or antigen, has its own approved list.

If you think you have COVID-19, however, your doctor will be able to order a test to be performed for you. If you want to be tested just to be safe, you can visit a free community-based testing site.

Source: Biden is expanding COVID test production. Here’s what to expect – Los Angeles Times