Price’s research comes at a moment when a growing number of archaeological finds and genetic analyses of ancient animal remains are adding layers of nuance to the story of domestication and partnership. Canines and humans, through their dynamic interactions, have formed one of the most unique, complex, and mutually beneficial relationships in history. “There’s a million things a dog can do for you kind of all at once,” says zooarchaeologist Angela Perri, of the University of Durham in England. “That’s why dogs are unlike any other domesticated animal that we have,” she adds. Though much is still unknown, it is increasingly clear that this bond formed in the distant past not only shaped dogs into the animals we know today—but also helped drive the cultural progression of human society. Dogs’ many, varied roles may therefore offer insight into changes in human communities.