Labor Unions and American Poverty – Tom VanHeuvelen, David Brady, 2021

Household union membership and state union density significantly negatively interact, augmenting the poverty-reducing effects of each. Higher state union density spills over to reduce poverty among non-union households, and there is no evidence that higher state union density worsens poverty for non-union households or undermines employment. Source: Labor Unions and American Poverty – Tom VanHeuvelen, David Brady, 2021