Until recently, the president’s opponents had refrained from convening street protests, opting instead to show their exasperation by banging pots and pans from windows and trading memes online.
But over the weekend, thousands of Brazilians critical of Mr. Bolsonaro took to the streets in the largest public mobilization against the president since the beginning of the pandemic.
Their show of force in cities across the country followed a series of damning revelations in congressional hearings examining the government’s catastrophic response to the coronavirus, which has killed more than 461,000 Brazilians.
Mariana Filgueiras, a professor at the school of communication at the Federal University of Rio de Janeiro, said she decided to participate in anti-government protests to help put a face on the rising opposition. A recent public opinion poll, by Datafolha, found that Mr. Bolsonaro’s support slipped to 24 percent in May from 30 percent in March.