Graffiti, vandalismo ou arte?

Culturalizando

O Graffiti é um desenho ou escrita desenhada sobre uma superfície com permissão ou não. No conceito moderno do termo, o graffiti(ou grafite em português) é considerado uma arte de rua e por isso sofre de preconceito pois a arte não se encontra dentro de uma galeria sendo exposta para um público seleto. Geralmente as pinturas feitas no grafite são feitas em locais abandonados e/ou públicos, como interiores de algum prédio abandonado. Os locais públicos são geralmente os muros, pontes, as vezes um local de difícil acesso.

Graffiti em local abandonado. (Pixabay)

Na antiguidade o grafite em forma de inscrições tinha outro tipo de conotação. Pois antigamente o ato de leitura e escrita era algo que somente pessoas de determinadas classes possuíam o domínio. Existem inscrições feitas pelos construtores dentro da pirâmide de Quéops no Egito (Sim, infelizmente não foram os extraterrestres que construíram as pirâmides, foram trabalhadores bem…

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We Can’t Just “Move On”: AOC & Rashida Tlaib Demand Accountability for Deadly Capitol Attack | Democracy Now!

As the U.S Senate prepares its impeachment trial of President Trump for inciting the January 6 insurrection, House lawmakers took to the floor Thursday to detail their experiences and demand accountability. We air excerpts from dramatic speeches by Democratic Congressmembers Alexandria Ocasio-Cortez of New York and Rashida Tlaib of Michigan. “Some are already demanding that we move on or, worse, attempting to minimize, discredit or belittle the accounts of survivors,” Ocasio-Cortez said. “In doing so, they not only further harm those who were there that day and provide cover for those responsible, but they also send a tremendously damaging message to survivors of trauma all across this country, that the way to deal with trauma, violence and targeting is to paper it over, minimize it and move on.”

Source: We Can’t Just “Move On”: AOC & Rashida Tlaib Demand Accountability for Deadly Capitol Attack | Democracy Now!

Myanmar: End Crackdown on Media, Communications

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Protesters in Yangon raise their phones in demonstration against the military coup in Myanmar, February 4, 2021.
© 2021 Photo by Aung Kyaw Htet / SOPA Images/Sipa USA via AP Images

Myanmar’s military junta should immediately lift internet restrictions, release all persons detained since the February 1, 2021 coup, and end harassment and threatened arrests of journalists, Human Rights Watch said today.

Journalists in Myanmar have reported credible threats of an imminent, broader-sweeping crackdown on media workers, and several have told Human Rights that they fear for their safety.

“A news and information blackout by the coup leaders can’t hide their politically motivated arrests and other abuses,” said Brad Adams, Asia director at Human Rights Watch. “The military should immediately release those arrested, restore access to online information, and protect the right to free expression.”

On February 4, the Assistance Association for Political Prisoners (AAPP) in Myanmar said that in addition to 133 officials and lawmakers whom the military detained at the onset of the coup, 14 activists had also been detained. On the morning of February 4, the authorities arrested 4 among about 20 protesters who had gathered outside the University of Medicine in Mandalay to oppose the coup. It is not yet known if those arrested have been charged. On February 5, the authorities detained Aung San Suu Kyi’s senior aide, Win Htein, 79, in Mayangone township. He is facing charges for his comments denouncing the coup.

Human Rights Watch called for the lifting of the February 3 and February 5 orders issued by the Transport and Communications Ministry, now fully under the control of the military, directing the blocking of social media services. The government said it was barring the use of the service because people were using it to “trouble the country’s stability.”

On February 3, the ministry ordered all mobile communications operators, international gateways, and internet service providers to cut off access to social media services owned by Facebook at least until February 7. The order went into effect on February 4, when Facebook, its Messenger app, as well as Instagram and WhatsApp, which Facebook owns, all became inaccessible on mobile data networks for people with SIM cards from the telecommunications company MPT. Telenor, a Norway-based telecommunications company, issued a statement saying that it had complied with the order that had a “legal basis in Myanmar law,” but expressed “grave concern regarding the breach of human rights.” Facebook is the main source of news and information in the country and for many Myanmar people is synonymous with the internet.

On February 5, the Council broadened the restrictions, ordering mobile communications operators, international gateways, and internet service providers to cut access to Twitter and Instagram. Disruptions to Twitter services were reported throughout the country and for numerous services providers. According to Netblocks, the service disruptions began on February 6 around 3 a.m. Instagram was already subject to restrictions under the previous directive at the time of the announcement.

On February 5, Telenor issued another statement saying it also complied with the February 5 directive, which it noted did not have a date of expiration, stating it had “legal basis in Myanmar’s telecommunications law” and that Telenor had challenged “the necessity and proportionality of the directive.”

Under international human rights standards, any internet-based restrictions must be provided for in law and be necessary and proportionate and pursuant to a legitimate aim. Internet shutdowns fail to meet these standards and hinder access to information and communications needed for daily life, which is particularly vital during times of crisis and the Covid-19 pandemic. Restrictions also provide cover for human rights abuses, and complicate efforts to document government violations.

Internet service providers should uphold their responsibilities under the United Nations Guiding Principles on Business and Human Rights, which says that companies should “[s]eek to prevent or mitigate adverse human rights impacts that are directly linked to their operations, products or services by their business relationships, even if they have not contributed to those impacts.” This means resisting unjustified internet shutdowns. Service providers should insist upon a legal basis for any shutdown order, interpret requests to cause the least intrusive restrictions, and restore access as soon as possible, Human Rights Watch said.

On February 4, the United Nations Security Council members issued a statement expressing deep concern over the declared state of emergency and the arbitrary detention of the members of the democratically elected government in Myanmar. In calling for the release of those detained, the Security Council also urged Myanmar to “refrain from violence and fully respect human rights, fundamental freedoms and the rule of law.” The council also expressed concern over restrictions on civil society, journalists, and other media workers.

“The Myanmar military has engaged in a naked power grab that if not reversed will set back democracy and the protection of human rights for a generation,” Adams said. “The coup was so appalling that even China, which has consistently protected military from condemnation at the Security Council, signed onto a call for the respect of fundamental freedoms. Governments should be clear-eyed about the military’s appalling human rights record and together demand the military abandon its wholesale assault on civilian rule, human rights, and the rule of law.”

Turkey: Erdogan promises ′no mercy′ towards Istanbul protesters | News | DW | 06.02.2021 – (Turkey goes small and dictatorial… again)

President Recep Tayyip Erdogan on Friday struck back at international criticism regarding Turkey’s response to students protests, telling western nations to focus on unrest in their own countries.

Students and faculty have organized multiple demonstrations at Bogazici University and other areas in the past few weeks, after the Turkish president appointed a rector there with ties to the ruling Justice and Development Party (AKP).

“I will say this to America: aren’t you ashamed of the incidents in the United States before the elections?” Erdogan said while leaving a mosque for Friday prayers. “Racism went over the roof,” he added, referring to the racial justice demonstrations across the US last year.

The Turkish president also addressed French President Emmanuel Macron’s criticism of the demonstrations, saying Paris needs to “sort out” the “yellow vest” protests.

US expresses support for protesters

The US State Department has criticized anti-LGBT rhetoric surrounding the protests. Turkey’s interior minister has characterized the protesters as “perverts” on Twitter.

Source: Turkey: Erdogan promises ′no mercy′ towards Istanbul protesters | News | DW | 06.02.2021

Military coup in Myanmar: news and updates

Teachers protest against military coup at Yangon University
Members of the Yangon University Teachers’ Association protest against the military coup by wearing red ribbons and raising three-fingered salutes on February 5, 2021. | Getty Images

Following a military coup, the US and its allies grapple with supporting a pro-democracy movement whose leader is complicit in genocide.

Myanmar’s military has seized full control of the country’s government and detained civilian leader Aung San Suu Kyi along with hundreds of members of her National League for Democracy (NLD) party in a move the Biden administration has labeled a “coup.”

The military has said it will remain in control of the country for at least a year, with ultimate authority resting with Senior Gen. Min Aung Hlaing. It’s unclear what will happen after 12 months, though some suspect the military will stay in charge beyond that.

Myanmar has gone back and forth between military and civilian leadership since 1948, but the Tatmadaw, as the military is more commonly known, always held significant power. The United States and other nations placed sanctions on the country for decades to compel the generals to enact pro-democracy reforms, and in 2011, the military finally ceded some of its power to civilian leaders and began to govern alongside Suu Kyi and her party.

Suu Kyi, a Nobel Peace Prize winner, had long advocated for democracy, including while the military held her under house arrest for years, and received global support for her struggle.

But once she became the country’s top civilian leader, she declined to challenge the military on one very important issue: its 2017 campaign of genocide against the Rohingya, a Muslim ethnic minority group in the country. She even defended their actions in an international court.

In 2020, she campaigned for further restricting the military’s role in governing the country, and in parliamentary elections in November, her party won a sweeping victory, essentially giving her a mandate to pursue those changes. Seeing that as a direct threat to their power, the nation’s generals claimed, without evidence, that the election was fraudulent. And just hours before the new parliament was to convene, the military launched its coup.

Human rights advocates warn the coup will mean danger for anyone who disagrees with the military’s actions, but it could prove especially perilous for the Rohingya and other persecuted ethnic and religious minorities in the country.

“The military is responsible for genocide against the Rohingya and other severe human rights abuses against other ethnic minorities, including the Rakhine, Kachin, [and] Shan,” Daniel P. Sullivan, a senior advocate for human rights at Refugees International who focuses on Myanmar, told Vox’s Jen Kirby.

The Biden administration labeled the takeover a coup, which will result in cuts to the already small amount of foreign aid the US gives the country, and said it is considering placing economic sanctions on Myanmar’s military. But it also faces the question of how to support the country’s pro-democracy movement without also supporting Suu Kyi, who has been “potentially complicit in genocide,” writes Vox’s Jariel Arvin.