La Historia de los Braceros Cobra Vida

Por Mario A. Cortez

José Ulloa Trujillo con su familia

Residentes de Logan Heights e historiadores locales quienes documentan la experiencia mexicoamericana y chicana en San Diego se reunieron este domingo en la galeria Bread and Salt para compartir y recolectar las historias de un capítulo muy importante en la relación entre México y Estados Unidos.

Mediante un programa educativo histórico, El Museo y Centro Cultural del Parque Chicano compartió la historia de José Ulloa Trujillo, un bracero quien eventualmente residiría en la región de Tijuana-San Diego, y recolectaron relatos de parientes de otros braceros.

El Programa Bracero fue una iniciativa por parte del gobierno de los Estados Unidos para importar mano de obra temporal en un esfuerzo de aligerar la falta de trabajadores agrícolas en la década de los 40s. El programa se estima que otorgó más de 5 millones de contratos de trabajo temporal a lo largo de 22 años, siendo así el tratado de trabajo extranjero más grande en la historia de los Estados Unidos.

Ulloa Trujillo, nacido en Zacatecas, trabajaba en las minas de Chihuahua cuando se involucró con el Programa Bracero en 1946. Él trabajó en las granjas de chícharos en Idaho por un año antes de regresar a Chihuahua. Años después, él y su familia se mudaron a nuestra región fronteriza.

La historia de este obrero viajero fue una cual Armando Pulido, historiador local y catedrático en la Universidad de San Diego, y Rigoberto Reyes, líder comunitario y activista, encontraron mientras realizaban una investigación para un libro sobre los autos y comunidad del movimiento lowrider.

Reproducción de un sobre de viaje que Ulloa Trujillo portó en sus viajes

“Conocimos a la familia Ulloa y resultó ser que el abuelo del señor Ray Ulloa fue un bracero y tenía documentos difíciles de encontrar”, compartió Pulido con La Prensa San Diego.

Los asistentes al evento pudieron ver reproducciones de documentos que Ulloa portó con él como una credencial del Programa Bracero y un sobre que servía como boleto de viaje. Un contrato original entregado a Ulloa Trujillo por parte del Departamento de Agricultura de los Estados Unidos y fotos del obrero también estuvieron en exhibición.

Otros componentes del evento incluyeron la presentación de escenas del filme “Cosecha Triste”, la presentación de una publicación que narra la odisea de Ulloa Trujillo al norte y un reconocimiento especial a la familia Ulloa Trujillo, la cual estuvo presente.

“Nosotros quisimos reconocer a la familia que documentamos y que fue parte del Programa Bracero”, dijo Josephine Talamantez, presidente del Museo y Centro Cultural del Parque Chicano. “Este año, los braceros están siendo reconocidos por el país por el trabajo con el que contribuyeron durante la Segunda Guerra Mundial y más allá”.

Durante el evento, Pulido y el personal del museo pudieron escanear más documentos pertenecientes a braceros y reunir más relatos sobre estos campesinos.

“Encontramos a una señora cuyo papá fue bracero y unas personas más estuvieron presentes para compartir historias”, dijo Pulido. “Estamos en un proceso de reunir más información y el evento de hoy fue un llamado a esos nombres en el programa bracero para poder tenerlos aquí y presentes en la historia”.

Según Pulido, el proceso de reunir testimonios, realizar investigaciones y hacer convocatorias para historias y documentos, puede tomar entre cinco y siete años para producir un proyecto completo y exhaustivo, esto debido a la naturaleza tan compleja del Programa Bracero.

Mientras tanto, el museo y sus investigadores continúan buscando más historias de los braceros, especialmente aquellos que aún siguen con vida.

“Muchos miembros de este programa se están yendo, así que qué mejor forma de documentar aquellos miembros del Programa Bracero en nuestra comunidad”, afirmó Talamantez. “Queremos esas historias”.

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Girls in Afghanistan—and Everywhere Else—Need Toilets

Girls cover their faces to protect themselves from the stench of a filthy and malfunctioning restroom in their school. at this school, girls have no toilets of their own and their only option is to use the ones on the far side of the buildings where the boys study. They do not have locking doors and are several minutes’ walk from a water point. ©2017 Paula Bronstein for Human Rights Watch

Girls cover their faces to protect themselves from the stench of a filthy and malfunctioning restroom in their school. at this school, girls have no toilets of their own and their only option is to use the ones on the far side of the buildings where the boys study. They do not have locking doors and are several minutes’ walk from a water point. ©2017 Paula Bronstein for Human Rights Watch

By Heather Barr and Amanda Klasing
LONDON/WASHINGTON DC, Nov 15 2017 (IPS)

“I never come here, just because of boys,” Atifa says, pointing at the door of the stall. “They’re opening the door.” Atifa, a sixth grader in Kabul, Afghanistan, attends a school of 650 girls. Since they study in tents in a vacant lot, the only toilets the girls have access to are on the far side of the boys’ school next door. The school is one of a very few for girls in the area, so some students walk over an hour each way to get there.

The toilets in the boys’ school consist of two separate blocks of pit toilets with four stalls per block. Both blocks are used by the boys, none of the stalls have locking doors, and none are reserved for  the girls’ use. On the day Atifa showed Human Rights Watch around, the floors were awash with urine and feces.

The school’s only water point—for drinking, handwashing, and any other uses— is a several-minute walk down a hill. Girls using the toilets have to cope with sexual harassment from male students on the way there, and boys trying to open the stall doors while girls are using the toilet.

When we interviewed girls, parents, and experts about this situation for a new report they said  that lack of access to toilets is a major barrier to education for girls in Afghanistan. Sixty  percent of schools here do not have toilets, 85 percent of out-of-school children are girls, and two-thirds of girls ages 12 to 15 are out of school.

Lack of access to toilets is a major barrier to education for girls in Afghanistan. 60% of schools here do not have toilets, 85% of out-of-school children are girls, and two-thirds of girls ages 12 to 15 are out of school.
Lack of access to clean, safe, private toilets is a major barrier around the world to girls like Atifa, and it’s an issue that disproportionately affects girls. No child should have to attend a school without toilets. But put bluntly, where toilets are not available it is easier–and more socially accepted–for boys to urinate outside than for girls, even in countries with far less strict views on girls’ behavior than Afghanistan.

When girls reach puberty and begin menstruation, the problem becomes even worse. Without privacy in the toilets, somewhere to dispose of waste or clean reusable hygiene materials, and running water in close proximity to toilets, girls face great difficulty managing menstrual hygiene. This leads many girls to stay home during their periods, and as these absences accumulate, they fall behind on their studies, suffer poor academic achievement, and are at increased risk of dropping out completely.

Countries around the world have recognized the need to reach universal coverage for sanitation—put simply people should be able to use a safe, hygienic toilet wherever they are—home, work, the hospital, and, yes, at school. As part of the global sustainable development goals– the 17 goals agreed upon by the United Nations in 2015 as part of a new sustainable development agenda– governments have set ambitious targets to end open defecation and achieve universal access to basic sanitation services by 2030.

Such a clarion call is nearly herculean. Six out of every 10 people in the world lack safely managed sanitation. That is 4.5 billion people. Given these numbers, it is easy to conclude a safe toilet is a privilege of the rich and urban, not a universal right.

Today is World Toilet Day. An odd thing to celebrate, perhaps. Yet, given those numbers it’s easy to see why we should stop and consider the humble toilet and all the benefits it provides to those who have access to it. For starters, those of us who can use the toilet and wash our hands are at reduced risk of the diarrheal diseases that claim the lives of more than 350,000 children a year.

But sanitation is more than just a privilege or a tool to prevent disease. It is a fundamental human right, one that can  enable people to realize other rights—like the right to health. For girls like Atifa, a simple, safe and private toilet can be essential to putting education within reach.

Governments will face many competing demands as they work to try to reach universal coverage by 2030. In the crush of priorities, there is a grave risk that the most marginalized and vulnerable will be left behind. In Afghanistan and in places around the world where girls have to fight and struggle to receive a basic education, toilets in school for girls should  not be lost in the shuffle.

 

The post Girls in Afghanistan—and Everywhere Else—Need Toilets appeared first on Inter Press Service.

A swarm of motorbikes, then heavy fire: testimony sheds new light on Niger attack

The attackers only fled six hours later when French aircraft arrived, villagers said. They made off with three vehicles stolen from the soldiers, but left behind one of their own pickups, the engine running. On the truck’s bed lay the bodies of two Americans.

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Four other bodies were scattered across the area; several of the fallen soldiers had apparently run for cover before being hunted down.

Initial reports of the battle suggested that three Americans had died. But two days later, in a copse some distance from the battlefield, village children found Johnson’s body wedged between two trees.

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According to locals, ambushed US special forces faced overwhelming, sustained attack from militants – and Nigerien authorities failed to react when alerted

New details of the attack in which four US special forces and four Nigerien soldiers were killed by militants suggest that they fought alone against a far superior force for hours – despite repeated calls for help by local villagers.

Testimony collected by the Guardian suggests that soldiers ambushed in Niger last month faced an overwhelming and coordinated attack – but one that might have been cut short if Nigerien authorities had reacted as soon as they were called.

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Trump hails Asia trip as ‘tremendous success’ and declares: ‘America is back’

The more #TraitorTrump says something is great, the most you know he is lying again!

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  • President delivers lengthy speech and claims success in North Korea dispute
  • Trump ignores questions about Alabama Senate candidate Roy Moore

Donald Trump has declared his 12-day Asia tour as a “tremendous success”, claiming that “America is back” as a global leader.

Related: Seoul warns Trump: US must not strike North Korea without our consent

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Seoul warns Trump: US must not strike North Korea without our consent

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  • Ruling party chair Choo Mi-ae says allies ‘must seek peaceful resolution’
  • Seoul backs policy of maximum pressure on Pyongyang through sanctions

Donald Trump should “under no circumstances” take military action against North Korea without the consent of the government in Seoul, the chairwoman of South Korea’s ruling party said on Wednesday.

“President Trump often emphasizes that he put all options on the table,” Choo Mi-ae told a Washington thinktank. “We want to make sure that this option of another war is not placed on the table. Under no circumstances should the US go ahead and use a military option without the consent of South Korea.

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Another Woman in Chennai Faced Death By Stalking and We’re Tired of Yelling Hoarse About How Serious It Is

Beyond sad – denial and self-delusion is killing too many.

By Shruti Sunderraman

Photo courtesy: Reuben Strayer via Flickr CC2.0

‘He’s not doing anything, let it be’ is the reaction women often have to hear when they confide that they’re being stalked by someone. It’s this assumption that keeps stalking from being taken seriously, isn’t it? That the stalker is simply looking at the woman, following her every move, but never making contact  – how is this thought reassuring? And what about cases where he does make contact and we still don’t take it seriously?

Look at what happened with 22-year-old Induja in Chennai. She was being stalked by an ex-classmate for a month, according to a report. When she spurned his advances, he turned up outside her home demanding to speak with her. When she let him enter her home to talk, he poured petrol over her and set her on fire on November 13. When her mother and younger sister rushed to help her, they caught fire too. Induja died due to burn injuries while her mother and sister are in critical condition.

According to the report, Induja’s mother and uncle were aware of Akash (the stalker) and that he was pestering Induja for a month. But they decided to not help Induja file a police complaint because they feared for her ‘reputation’.

This is generally a pattern of behaviour with us. We either don’t take cases of stalking seriously till it escalates severely or we turn it into a drama with blame-games and political muscle displays, like it happened with Varnika Kundu. As for the former, in April this year, Shobha, a Bangalore resident, was stabbed to death by her stalker Girish, who worked as a painter and was furious that Shobha had not only rejected him but was also planning to get married to someone. There was an entire ruckus in the media about how insensitively it was reported and dismissing media channels were about her murder, almost as though her murder was an unfortunate consequence and not a dangerous act of violence. It’s only been months since her murder and already her name has disappeared from the public sentiment, even with a campaign titled #JusticeForShobha trying to forcefully steer the conversation towards the seriousness of stalking. But she’s forgotten. Gone. Zap. The same thing happened with Induja. Akash learnt that Induja’s family was scouting for suitable grooms and Akash could wait no more to establish power over her by burning her to death. How long till we forget what happened to her too?

In earlier cases, another woman from Bangalore, Jyothi was murdered by her stalker in December last year. Pinki Devi, a beautician in Gurgaon was stabbed to death by her stalker at a metro station in Delhi in October 2016. S Swathi, an Infosys employee, was hacked to death by her stalker at Chennai’s Nungambakkam railway station in June 2016. In these cases, their deaths have occurred in public spaces where the perpetrator can easily escape in a crowd. But with Induja’s case, the gravity had descended more heavily with Akash murdering her in her own home.

News about Induja broke my heart, it really did. Women are told often to rush to the safety of their homes in scary situations. Imagine having that safety violated too? It’s terrifying to me, and to families of stalked victims. But clearly, this fear and sadness isn’t enough for stalking to be taken seriously for the violent crime it is.

The post Another Woman in Chennai Faced Death By Stalking and We’re Tired of Yelling Hoarse About How Serious It Is appeared first on The Ladies Finger.