Israeli soldiers routinely shoot heads of injured Palestinians, court told | The Electronic Intifada


“In terrorist incidents I witnessed, I saw with my own eyes that in every instance in which a terrorist attacked, soldiers shot him in the center of mass until he was neutralized … and [shot] a bullet to the head to ensure that the terrorist could not set off a suicide belt or continue the attack. These soldiers never went to court,” Liebman, the longtime civilian security chief for Jewish settlers in Hebron, told the court.“A ‘neutralized terrorist’ means: either he attempted to carry out an attack and was shot in the chest and killed and then shot in the head to make sure – as is taught in the IDF [Israeli army] according to the rules of opening fire – or it means that the terrorist was checked by a sapper and was cuffed by the hands and feet,” Liebman added.

Source: Israeli soldiers routinely shoot heads of injured Palestinians, court told | The Electronic Intifada

US first: E coli resistant to both colistin, carbapenems | CIDRAP

US researchers say they’ve identified a strain of Escherichia coli that is resistant to both colistin and carbapenem antibiotics in a US hospital patient.According to a study published today in the journal mBio, the strain was isolated from the urine of a 76-year-old male patient who was being treated for a urinary tract infection at a New Jersey hospital in 2014. Whole-genome sequencing of the isolate, performed this year, confirmed the presence of the MCR-1 and blaNDM-5 genes, which confer resistance to colistin and carbapenems, respectively. The strain was found to harbor resistance genes to several other antibiotics, as well.The finding confirms fears that were aroused when researchers in China first identified the colistin-resistance gene MCR-1 in E coli isolates from pigs, pork products, and humans in November 2015. Colistin is considered an antibiotic of last resort in humans, used mainly when bacterial infections won’t respond to other drugs.

Source: US first: E coli resistant to both colistin, carbapenems | CIDRAP

Antibiotic resistance prompts new WHO STD guidance | CIDRAP

Quinolones out for gonorrheaAffecting an estimated 78 million people each year, Neisseria gonorrhoeae has become widely resistant, and older, cheaper antibiotics have lost their treatment effectiveness. The WHO said antibiotic resistance has appeared and expanded with every release of a new antibiotic class for managing gonorrhea.According to the guidance update, countries should track antibiotic resistance patterns in the strains that are circulating in their populations.Quinolone antibiotics are no longer recommended for treating gonorrhea because of widespread high levels of resistance.The WHO also said strains are showing decreased susceptibility to extended-spectrum (third-generation) cephalosporins, a recommended first-line treatment from its 2003 guidelines. Several countries have reported treatment failures, the agency said.New guidance now covers recommendations for treating oropharyngeal infections and retreatment after treatment failure. The WHO said dual therapy is now preferred over single therapy, with single therapy based on local resistance data.Updated guidance contains changes to some dosages and suggests new topical medications for the prevention of ophthalmia neonatorum, a type of conjunctivitis contracted by babies born to infected mothers.Single injection recommended for syphilisSyphilis affects about 5.6 million people each year, and infected mothers can pass the disease to their unborn babies, which can result in early fetal death or stillbirth. In its guidance, the WHO said resistance to azithromycin has been reported in some strains of Treponema pallidum, the bacterium that causes syphilis.To cure the disease, the WHO’s new guidance strongly recommends a single dose of benzathine penicillin, an antibiotic injected into the patient’s buttock or thigh. The drug is more effective and cheaper than oral antibiotics, the WHO said.Though benzathine penicillin was deemed an essential medicine in May by the World Health Assembly, shortages have been reported for the past several years, and the WHO said it has received out-of-stock reports from antenatal care groups and from health providers in countries that have high syphilis burdens.The WHO said it is working with partners to monitor the global supply of the drug and to help bridge the gaps between needs and supply.New guidelines also address congenital syphilis, including considerations for pregnant women, people living with HIV, immunocompromised patients, and key populations such as sex workers, men who have sex with men, and transgender people.First-line chlamydia treatmentThe WHO estimates that 131 million people are infected with chlamydia each year, making it the most common bacterial STI. People infected with Chlamydia trachomatis are frequently co-infected with gonorrhea.Treatment failures have been reported for tetracyclines and macrolides, according to the WHO. The new guidance provides updates for first- and second-line treatment of the disease.The chlamydia module includes nine treatment recommendations for genital infections and lymphogranuloma venereum, the more invasive, chronic form of the disease caused by a different subtype. Recommendations also address key populations, such as those living with HIV, and include specific recommendations for genital chlamydia infection in pregnant women and for prevention of ophthalmia neonatorum.

Source: Antibiotic resistance prompts new WHO STD guidance | CIDRAP