In one of the more moving essays, Deborah Miranda of Esselen / Chumash responds to a fourth grader named Sonora who wants to know if the Indians liked the missions and if the priests were good. Miranda writes that although some Indians believe the missions brought them Catholicism and agriculture, others insist that anything that kills about 80 percent of your people can’t be all that good.
Miranda explains to Sonora that once the Franciscans baptized the Indians, they refused to let them leave the missions. Nor could their family members visit them unless they were baptized. Girls under seven were locked up in dirty rooms at the missions (called monjerios) and got sick from the lack of sanitation. Meanwhile their parents were forced to work on the mission’s farms.
The Indians were beaten frequently for not obeying the rules of the missions, for reverting to their native religious practices, gathering wild food, hunting, or visiting their families.
Moreover, the friars made changes to the Indian’s diet, supplanting it with European foods that weakened their immune systems and made them prey to diseases such as smallpox, measles and tuberculosis.
The mission system, Miranda explains to Sonora, was a disaster. The Indian population was decimated because of European diseases, and the Indians lost their land, their religion, their language and their communities. And after the mission period ended in 1833, the remaining land was taken over by non-Indians and later by Anglo settlers who arrived with the Gold Rush.
Today, if America’s anti-gay bigots and diehards aren’t thanking God for Roy Moore, perhaps they should, given Moore’s attempted defiance of a federal judge’s order clearing the way for same-sex marriage in Alabama. By ordering Alabama probate judges (who, incidentally, need not be lawyers) to refuse marriage licenses to same-sex couples, Moore is demonstrating contempt for the rule of law, something he’s sworn to uphold. That is, Moore is treating as a nullity a ruling by a U.S. District judge for Southern Alabama (an appointee of George W. Bush) that cleared the way for same-sex marriage in Alabama.
Fighting started after the MNDAA took weapons from local militia in the Kokang province on Monday, February 9. Soon afterwards, other rebel groups including the Kachin Independence Army, the Ta’ang National Liberation Army, the Arakan Army and Shan State Army-North joined the fight. Since 2011, the government of Myanmar has been trying to install a nationwide ceasefire by drawing up peace agreements with numerous ethnic minority rebel groups. But the recent fighting has put a halt to further agreements.
Thousands of people in the region have fled across the border into China as a result of the violence. Officials in China reacted by urging the two sides to settle the issue peacefully so that refugees could safely return to their homes.
President Obama and his team are making a final, urgent push to boost government health insurance sign-ups in the next two days, in part by making sure people know that tax penalties for remaining uninsured have risen significantly.
After the enrollment deadline passes on Sunday, every adult without insurance will be subject to a minimum penalty of $325 when filing taxes next year. The fee will rise the following year to $695 per adult, more than seven times the $95 penalty for being uninsured in 2014.
Following, are real photos taken by Professionals that most visitors are unable to capturewith their cameras. The Photos were received in an email, too good to delete, should beshared with others. They are posted here for people to see and enjoy.
via Grand Canyon.